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No. 63 



September, 1962 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 




ONTARIO 



(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. J.W. Spooner, 
Minister. 



F.A. MocDougall 
Deputy Minister 



No. 65 



September, 1962 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 



"*«$& . 




ONTARIO 



Fish and Wildlife Branch 



(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. J.W. Speoner, 
Mlnliter. 



F.A. MoeDougal 
Deputy Minister 



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in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemansep1962onta 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 65 September, 1962 



Page 
Spring Goose Hunt Along James Bay by Local 
Indians, 1962. - by A. Gagnon 1 

Hungarian Partridge Report - Kemptville District, 
January 1, 1961.- January 31, 1962.."" 

- by J. B. Dawson 7 



Strychnine Poison Testing Program, Kenora 

District. - by M. Linklater 22 

Report on Penage Lake Angling Success, 1961, 

- by D. R. Hughson 26 

Fall Creel Census on Lake Simcoe , 1961. 

- by K. Truesdell 33 

A Study of Rainbow Trout in the Nottawasaga River 

System with Particular Reference to the Fishway 

at Nicolston Dam. - by Fred H. Marshall 37 



Hatchery Data and Procedures, North Bay Hatchery, 

1961. - by N. B. Hollingsworth 41 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA- DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 

SPRING GOOSE HUNT ALONG JAMES BAY 
BY LOCAL INDIANS, 1962 

by 
Ao Gagnon 



Abstract 

In order to assess the numbers of waterfowl and other 
animals being utilized by local Indians along a section 
of the coast of James Bay, the writer spent five weeks 
with Indian families at Nattabisha Point, 30 miles 
northeast of Moosonee, in the spring of 1962. Indian 
methods of hunting and preparation and preserving of 
waterfowl for later use are described. During the 
writer's stay seven Indian families consisting of 17 
adults and 13 children killed, consumed or preserved 
522 waterfowl, 7 owls, 1 moose, 6 beavers, 66 rabbits 
and 69 grouse of three species. 



The following report concerns the spring hunt of Canada 
Geese, Waveys and Ducks at Nattabisha Point 30 miles northeast of 
Moosonee, along the coast of James Bay, 

The purpose of my stay with the Indians in this area was 
to study their mode of spring hunting also their methods for the 
preparation and curing of waterfowl, to be placed in storage for 
the summer months, as one of their main items of food. Other 
details on the program included: a study of their ways of early 
and late spring survival and movements along the coast; the col- 
lection of Canada Goose tail feathers for H, Hanson; to compile a 
record of the number of birds killed by species per day and the hours 
spent in blinds per day, sex ratio of birds killed etc. 

The writer spent 32+ days with seven families at Nattabisha 
Point, from April 4th to May 10th, Transportation to Nattabisha 
Point was made by Snowmobile pulling a sleigh loaded with a 22 foot 
freighter canoe and the necessary camping equipment. Transportation 
returning to Moosonee was accomplished by travelling 15 miles on the 
coastal ice by dog team, pulling the sleigh and canoe, and then 
over 15 miles of open water up river by canoe, to Moosonee. 

During the early part of April before the bird migration, 
the Indians were busy getting organized by moving their equipment 
from the winter hunting grounds to Nattabisha Point, which is high 
with dry gravel shoals and is not effected by the spring floods, and 
has a tremendous amount of driftwood which is very important along 
the coast as fuelwood. 

The coastal Indian appears to be more of a hunter than a 
trapper, trapping just enough to buy groceries for the necessary 
requirements, such as flour, sugar, tea, baking powder, lard, shells 
and a few clothes. No doubt this is due to their areas not having 
the abundance of wild fur-bearing animals that the inland trapping 
areas have. 



- 2 - 
E arly Spring Hunting 

At the break of dawn most of the people would leave camp 
for the day to look at their rabbit snares, also to hunt ptarmigan 
and sharptailed grouse. The younger men were also hunting moose, 
and the older men would set hawk and owl traps. The traps were set 
on the top of poles approximately five feet high and placed along 
the edge of the ice* These birds went into the pot whenever 
trapped o 

The first migratory birds seen were two Canada Geese, this 
was on April 9th and started the Indians making wooden decoys, also 
snow and ice blinds,. The inside of the blinds were matted with wild 
grass to help keep out some of the cold, while the hunter sat 
waiting inside,, Some of the blinds were made along the willow line 
and others were as far as one half mile out on the ice. Once the 
hunting started eleven hunters covered the coastline from the east 
side of Boy Bluff to the west side of the Kesagami River, this 
would be an area of approximately 20 miles of coastline, using 
dogs for transportation to and from their blinds. 

Migration 

Ptarmigan were quite plentiful and fat in the early part 
of April, during which time they were migrating north, the last one 
seen and killed was on April 21st at Nattabisha Point. 

The first Marsh Hawk was seen on April 20th, and the first 
killed was on the 22nd . 

Killdeers were first seen on April 30th. 

Blue and Snow Geese were observed on May 1st. 

Sea Gulls were first noted on May 2nd. 

During my stay in this area, two Golden-breasted Canadas 
were shot and it was interesting to note, that the Indians call them 
the Fort George Goose. These birds have a shorter neck and are 
heavier than the ordinary Canada. 

It wasn^t until April 18th that they had the first kill. 
By noon they had four Canadas, which they brought back to camp, 
where the women started to pluck and clean the birds for a big 
feast. Before sundown the feast had begun, having what they call 
(Sakabonn) which is roasted in the open fire, by having the Canadas 
hung on a three foot string and twirled at a slow motion for approx- 
imately one and one half hours until cooked. Beneath the birds a 
flat pot or frying pan is placed to collect all the fat that drops 
from the birds. This fat is used for cooking and saved for the sum- 
mer months to be used in making bannock etc. Along with the four 
Canadas they made a large plum pudding, as a specialty for this 
occasion, which made everyone in camp quite happy that evening. 



- 3 - 

From April l$th to May 10th the kills varied from zero 
per day, to 103 for the highest killed per day. Some of the younger 
men would go away from the main camp for one or two nights by dog 
team (12 to 15 miles) and would return with their kills for the women 
to pluck and clean. Some of the birds would be made into what they 
call (Nahmasteak) , the bird is plucked and skinned with approximately 
J inch of lean meat left on the skin to preserve the fat, then hung 
on poles in a wigwam for about 10 days over a light smoke » Willow 
wood is used to dry and smoke the meat to a degree that it will keep 
during the summer monthso The gizzard is also cut open, cleaned and 
cured in the same manner, whereas the livers are fried or boiled. 
The hearts are usually put on a stick and cooked over an open fire, 
this they call Ahbonn. The entrails are emptied and cleaned, then 
fried in a large cast iron pot to save the fat, which is drained 
and stored in a pail for later use and tripe is eaten with boiled 
meat or bannock and tea for lunch. The feet, forward parts of the 
wings are also cured and kept for the summer months, to be used for 
soups, etc. The heads and top part of the neck combined are cooked 
by the pot full. Goose blood is used in stews and stuffing of birds 
with bannock or rolled oats. Down feathers are also collected and 
used for making homemade eiderdowns, for their bedding. The prepar- 
ations and uses made of the goose results in practically nothing 
being wasted. 

Ducks 

Very few ducks were killed as the Indians were hunting for 
geese and could not afford to vasto shells oo these birds. 

Collection of Canada Goose Tail Feathers 

For the second year now, tail feathers have been collected 
along the coast for Mr. H. Hanson, to be used for research purposes. 
The first year the Department was not too successful in collecting 
the amount which Mr. Hanson required, however this year at Nattabisha 
Point 400 tail feathers were collected by the writer and the Depart- 
ment is expecting about the same amount from Fort Albany and 
Attawapiskat Bands. 

Collection of Bird Bands 

Twenty Canada Goose bands were collected along with two 
Blue Geese bands and three duck bands, also one Canada neck band was 
collected. 

The writer left a note book with Mr. Edward Butterfly, 
who is an Indian hunter at Nattabisha Point and Mr. Butterfly will 
be good enough to collect the necessary information and bird bands 
during the rest of the hunt. 

When the writer left Nattabisha Point on May 10th only 
local breeding Canadas were in the area, nesting in the muskeg lakes 
along the coast. From this time on the Indians were expecting only 
a few Canada kills, however, they did expect to get a few good days 
of Wavey kills between the feeding grounds west of the Kasagami 
River and east of Crooked Creek, along the coast. 



- 4 - 

The following chart indicates the date, number of hours spent 
in blinds per day, and kills per day for eleven Indian hunters, 
also the sex ratio and species of kills. (Sex rations shown were 
acquired with the help of the Indian women during the cleaning 
processo ) 







CANADAS 




WAVEYS 




DUCKS 


Date 


Hours 


6 


2 


U 


6 


9 U 


d 


2 U 


Apr. 11 


16 
















12 


77 
















13 


56 
















14 


35 
















15 



















16 


3B 
















17 


60 
















18 


107 


2 


2 












19 


59 




2 












20 


83 


3 


1 












21 


86 


16 


19 


4 






2 


1 


22 


24 


10 


13 








1 


1 


23 


33 


17 


11 








1 


2 


24 


64 


13 


9 


5 










25 


43 


1 


2 












26 


74 


39 


44 


10 






1 




27 


39 


5 


8 












28 


2 

















29 


75 


16 


13 


6 










30 


98 


45 


39 


19 


2 


3 


1 


1 


May 1 


18 


5 


5 








1 


1 


2 


70 


12 


14 


1 




2 


3 


1 


3 


17 


4 


6 




1 






1 


4 


49 


4 


7 




2 


2 2 


1 


2 


5 


51 


6 


5 




2 


1 


1 


1 


6 


41 


4 


3 




5 


3 


1 


1 


7 


32 


4 


5 


1 


1 


1 






8 


45 


5 


3 








2 




Totals 


1392 


211 


211 


46 


13 


12 2 


15 


12 



- 5 - 
Summary 

Seven families consisting of 17 adults and 13 children 
killed, consumed, or preserved the following animals and waterfowl, 
during may stay at Nattabisha Point, from April 4th to May 10th« 

Per cent of Waterfowl Kills 

90/* 



Waterfowl 


No. 


of Kills 


Canada Geese 




463 


Blue & Snow Geese 




27 


Ducks 

(12 Pintails) 
( 9 Blacks ) 
( 6 Mallards) 




27 



Total Waterfowl 522 100$ 

Hawks & White Owls 

Marsh Hawk 3 

White Owl 4 

Wild Game 

Moose Calf F 1 

Beaver 6 

Rabbit 66 

Ptarmigan 62 

Sharptailed Grouse 5 

Ruffed Grouse 2 

Total man-hours for eleven hunters per Canada Goose •••••••••• 3 

" " " " " " " Blue & Snow Geese ...••51.5 

»» ?» »t n « it U fhirk- ^1 ^ 



- 6 - 

The following is a list of bird bands which were collected 
at Nattabisha Point, during the spring of 1962, by the writer. 



Date 



Apr. 21 



Apr. 22 



Name of Hunter Species of Bird 



^pr. 23 

ftpr. 24 

<\pr. 26 

kpr. 27 



\pr. 30 



4ay 2 
lay 5 



lere 



All the above mentioned hunters are residents of Moose 
? actory, Ontario. 



John Butterfly 

Eddie Essau 
Abel Butterfly 
John Butterfly 
Abel Butterfly 



V. 



?» 



George Butterfly 






Abel Butterfly 
Alex Katebeltic 
John Butterfly 
George Butterfly 
Willie Frenchman 

Abel Butterfly 
George Butterfly 
Edward Butterfly 
George Butterfly 
George Jolly 



Canada Goose 

U »! 

?» ?? 

Duck 

Canada 
?» 

?» 

u 

Wavey 
?? 

Canada 

n 
?» 

Duck 
Canada 

Canada 
«? 

ii 

»i 

Canada 

Pintail 

Canada 



Canada 



U.S. 
U.S. 



U.S. 
U.S. 



U.S 
U.S 



U.S 



U.S. 

U.S. 
U.S. 
U.S. 
U.S. 
Neck 



Band Nos. 

F53-54147 Jc Miner 
F47-41273 Jo Miner 

F & W 513-74295 

F & W 677-41476 

F61-57221 J. Miner 
F59-55190 J. Miner 
F53-53905 J. Miner 
F 50145 Jo Miner 
& ¥ 667-30573 
& W 667-77353 
F56-51399 J. Miner 
F53-43532 J. Miner 

F & W 513-13456 

F & W 537-17516 

F60-55357 Jo Miner 
F61-57526 Jo Miner 

F & W 513-34677 

F61-57949 J. Miner 
F59-54935 Jo Miner 

F & W 513-16545 

F59-54753 J. Miner 

F & ¥ 617-04630 

F & ¥ 503-42501 

F & ¥ 503-66421 

F & ¥ 503-44310 

Band (Green Stripe on 
Red Band) 



F 
F 



Other hunters who contributed Canada Goose tail feathers 
Mark Butterfly 
Abraham Chikabi 
Stan Katebeltic. 



- 7 - 

HUNGARIAN PARTRIDGE REPORT - KEMPTVILLE DISTRICT 
January 1, 1961 - January 31? 1962 

by 
Jo B. Dawson 



Abstract 

Observations indicated that the Hungarian Partridge 
came through the "open 1 " winter of 1960-61 in good 
condition . In January 1961, 63 coveys averaged 8«5 
birds with coveys much stronger than in 1960, The 
open season from September 23 to November IS was most 
successful with hunting pressure slightly increased 
over I960. Hunting success was 3<>9 birds per gun-day, 
This compared to 4*3 birds in 1959 and 3*9 birds in 
1960o The 1961 juvs adult ratio (4.2:1) and the juv: 
adult female ratio (9olsl) were higher than those for 
1960c The juv: adult ratio 12 year average, 3«4*1 has 
been higher in eastern Ontario Hungarian Partridge 
than in many other partridge populations . The 1961 
juvenile sex ratio is similar to the long term (12 
years) average, 45 °4<3 , <3"s 54,692. The adult sex ratio 
although favouring males, is less heavily weighted 
in this direction than the long term average (57»l^c?° 
42o922) As of March 1, 1962, coveys appear to be of 
average size and with favourable spring and summer 
weather a good crop of Huns is anticipated for the 
1962 season. 



Although coveys were somewhat smaller than average in 1961, 
partridge should have come through the very "open winter of 1960-61 
in good condition . A good population was in evidence in January 
1961, and 63 coveys averaged £.5 birds. Snow cover decreased in 
February and few coveys were observed for the remainder of the 
winter. 

Spring and early summer was very cold, and frost occurred 
during the first week in June, Rainfall was not heavy however, and 
came as occasional heavy showers, rather than prolonged drizzle*. 
Records show that every rainy, cold day was followed by sunny 
weather, and considering the abnormally low temperatures, it is very 
probable that this sunny weather was responsible for the surprisingly 
good hatching success which occurred. 

The season, from September 23 to November lSth inclusive, 
was a most successful one and it appeared that hunting pressure had 
increased slightly over I960, Although overall hunting success was 
exactly the same as in I960 (3.9 birds per gun-day) we feel that 

♦We are in the process of analyzing long term weather records and 
this, we hope, will be included in a more comprehensive report on 
Huns now under compilation. 



- 3 - 

hunting conditions were somewhat better and that more relatively 
inexperienced hunters were contacted this year than last. Certainly 
coveys were much stronger in 1961 than in I960, and although we 
lack factual information, I would think that coveys were slightly 
more numerous. 

The area of "shootable Hun density" appears to be 
spreading in eastern Ontario. Several Ottawa gunners did very 
well in the clay plains west of Ottawa as far afield as Arnprior. 
Hun densities appear to be increasing around Fallowfield, Stittsville 
and Hazeldean in Nepean and Goulbourn Townships of Carleton County, 
and this winter a surprising number of coveys has been observed in 
some of these localities. Partridge not only are spreading through- 
out agricultural lands in eastern Ontario, but fringe populations are 
becoming more firmly established. Certainly, if densities continue 
to improve, the area of "huntable density'"* will no longer be res- 
tricted to the well known clay plain territory along the South 
Nation river. 

The Nesting Season 

Temperatures were far below normal during May and June 1961, 
and phenology and the nesting season was late. Table 1 shows the 
percentage of birds hatched by weeks. Fig, 1 compares hatching 
trends for the past three years. Hatching data were obtained by 
noting the growth of the shortest ingrowing primary on 456 hunter- 
killed birds in 1961. Growth was recorded as 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 or 
fullgrown and age computed using the table described by Petrides 
(195D. 



- 9 - 



u 


CO 


CO 


CO 


M 


Q 


Q 


o 


— 


(T 


cr 


cr 


CO 


— 


— 


— 




CD 


CD 


CD 


u 








_l 


C\J 


CO 


to 


CL 


CO 


LD 


IT) 


T 


C\J 


CO 


^ 


< 








CO 









CO 



01 
in 
01 



cr> 

z 

t- 
i- 

O 

< 

co 
o 



O 

CO 
Ol 



h- 

o 

> 
< 

X 

t- 
co 

o 

2 



CO 
Ol 



4N 



\l/ 



M/' 




o 

CO 



31dWVS JO 1N30 U3d 



Table 1. 



- 10 - 

Hatching Dates of Hungarian Partridge from Wing 

Moult Data 
1959-1960-1961 



Period 


1959 
No. Birds % 


No. Bi 


I960 
rds % 


No. B: 


1961 
Lrds % 


May ; 


25-31 


14 


6.0 


- 


- 


- 


- 


June 


1-7 


51 


22.0 


19 


5.4 


2 


0.5 


June 


8-14 


22 


9c5 


29 


8.2 


21 


4.6 


June 


15-21 


30 


12.9 


52 


14.7 


56 


12.2 


June 


22-25 


54 


23.3 


80 


22.6 


119 


26.2 


June 


29-July 5 


15 


6.5 


33 


9.4 


91 


19.9 


July 


6-12 


7 


3.0 


41 


11.6 


36 


7.8 


July 


13-19 


15 


6.5 


15 


4.3 


32 


7.0 


July 


20-26 


9 


3.9 


20 


5.7 


14 


3.1 


*July 


27-Aug. 2 


11 


4.7 


19 


5.4 


36 


7.8 


Aug. 


3-9 


2 


0.9 


20 


5.7 


17 


3.8 


Augo 


10-16 


2 


0.9 


15 


4.2 


17 


3.8 


Aug« 


17-23 


- 


- 


4 


1.1 


10 


2.2 


Aug. 


24-30 


- 


- 


6 


1.7 


1 


0.2 


Aug. 


31-Sept 6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


0.9 


TOTALS 


232 




353 




456 





* July 26 has been chosen as the date separating initial nestings 
from renestings. 

Even though the season was late the peak of the hatch 
occurred during the week of June 21-28; it is interesting that, 
from 1956 to 1961 inclusive, the hatching peak has occurred during 
that week. Undoubtedly this has resulted in fewer nest losses from 
mowing and a comparatively low renesting percentage. 

It is evident that early or late seasons may greatly 
influence the time of hatching. For instance, during the very warm 
spring and early summer of 1959, 28 per cent of the sample hatched 
on or be fore June 7; this compares with 5.4 per cent and 0.5 per cent 
in I960, and 1961, respectively. 



- 11 - 

Renesting 

A late hay harvest which allows most initial nestings to 
come off is probably largely responsible for the low renesting 
percentage in eastern Ontario This may be an important factor in 
the success of Hun populations in this area,. 

We have used July 26 as the hatching date separating 
birds from initial nestings compared to renestings. Table 1 indi- 
cates that IS. 7 per cent of 456 birds hatched after this date in 
196lo This is our highest renesting figure on record, and compares 
with 13 cO per cent in I960 and a longterm average of 3.5 per cento 

Care must be taken if renesting data are to be interpreted 
correctly; superficially, it would appear that renesting was about 
the same in I960 and 1961 . We have reason to doubt this, and a 
comparison of the two years is discussed further under fall covey 
sizeso 

It seems probable that partridge renesting does cons- 
titute a lower percentage in eastern Ontario than in many other 
areas,, Table 2 shows renesting trends for eastern Ontario. 
Westerskov (1957) states that Danish records indicate that approxi- 
mately 25 per cent of the young partridge of the year come from 
repeat nests and points out that Bureau 9 s (1911) data show a 
renesting per cent of 36 for partridges in France, Middleton (1935) 
showed that 22 per cent of 1,232 initial partridge nests were 
destroyed in England. 



Table 2 


Per 


cent Rene 


sting 




Year 


Location 


Per cent 
Renesting 


of 

; * 


Reference 


I960 


Eastern Ontario 




18.0 




this study 


1961 


Eastern Ontario 




13.7 




this study 


12 year 
average 


Eastern Ontario 




3.5 




this study 




Denmark 




25.0 




Westerskov (1957) 




France 




36.0 




Bureau (1911)** 



♦Renesting per cent is the percentage of juveniles (in hunters* 
bags) hatching after July 26. Since smaller broods result from 
renestings, the per cent of actual renesting would be somewhat 
higher than the figures indicate. 

**Paper not seen - referred to by Westerskov, 



- 12 - 

Nest destruction is high in the United States. Nesting 
studies in Michigan, Yeatter (1934) and in Wisconsin, McCabe and 
Hawkins (1946) showed that approximately 68 per cent of partridge 
nests under observation were destroyed; thus it appears that broods 
from two or more nesting attempts must constitute a large proportion 
of fall coveys in these states. 

Fall Covey Size 

The average size of 30 coveys observed in September and 
early October 1961, was 14.8, a substantial increase over the I960 
average of 11. 4. 

Some interesting information has been gathered on fall 
covey size over the past fourteen years. Table 3 shows the average 
covey size since 194$. 

Table 3» Average Covey Size - September - early October* 194S-1961, 



Year 


Month 






No 
Si 


c Covey 
ghtings 






Average 
Covey Size** 


1948 


September 








5 






14.2 


1950 


September, early Oct. 






19 






13.1 


1951 


Sept., early 


October 






29 






12.5 


1952 


Sept., early 


October 






31 






12.1 


1953 


Sept. , early 


October 






53 






11.0 


1954 


September 








19 






10.9 


1955 




No Data 




Year of 


Decline 




1956 


September 








21 






13o7 


1957 


Sept., early 


October 






36 






15.2 


1958 


Sept t , early 


October 






20 






15.2 


1959 


September 








40 






15o4 


I960 


September 








37 






11.4 


1961 


Sept o , early 


October 






30 






14o8 


♦Although some covey counts were recorded after the season opened, 
about the same number were used each year. Field data indicate 
that the majority of the coveys which were observed after the season 
opened were unshot coveys and did not contain fewer birds, on the 



average, than pre-season observations 
** Coveys of three birds or more. 



- 13 - 

It appears that coveys were smaller during the years 
194S-1954 than during the 1956-1961 period. The mean covey size 
for the latter period is 14«3j and for the former period 11.8. 

Table 3A and figure 2 show the distribution of various 
covey sizes, expressed as per cent of all observations, for these 
years o 

I believe the difference in average covey size between 
the two above-mentioned periods resulted from an increase in covey 
size following the marked 1954-1955 partridge decline. This 
increase was probably associated with a small but rapidly expanding 
population situated in good habitat 8 It has been demonstrated by 
several workers that average litter or brood size in animal popu- 
lations often increases when population density is low and is often 
depressed when density reaches a high level. 

Another interesting feature of covey size is the fact 
that average fall covey size steadily declined from 1943 to 1954, 
the year preceding the rapid decline. It may be that this trend 
is significant, although sample size in some instances is small. 
This decline in covey size is probably correlated with the decline 
in juvenile-adult ratios in the early 1950* s, which proved to be 
statistically significant* 

* Morrison (1954) - letter on file Kemptville district office. 



- u - 



Table 3a. Fr quency Distribution of Covey Sizes, 1943-1954 ar *d 1956-61 



Period 


3 


4 


5 





7 


1 

3 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


1943; 1950-1954 
(inclo) 




























No, Coveys 
Observed 


5 


5 


6 


11 


13 


12 


3 


11 


7 


. 11 


3 


7 


12 


Per cent of 
Total 


3o2 


3o2 


3.3 


7.1 


3,3 


7.7 


5.1 


7.1 


4.5 


7.1 


5.1 


4.5 


7.7 


1956-1961 (incl.) 




























No. Coveys 
Observed 


9 


4 


2 


7 


2 


15 


6 


4 


3 


11 


4 


15 


16 


Per cent of 
Total 


4.9 


2c2 


lcl 


3.3 


1.1 


3.2 


3.3 


2.2 


1.6 

. — — 


6.0 
... i 


2.2 


3.2 


3.7 



Period 




16 




17 


13 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


25 

& 

over 


Total 
Coveys 


Mean 

Covey 

Size 


1943; 1950-1954 
(incl.) 
























No. Coveys 
Observed 


7 


6 


7 


4 


12 


— 


3 


— 


1 


156 


11.3 


Per cent of 
Total 


4.5 


3.3 


4.5 


2.6 


7.7 




L.9 




0.6 






1956-1961 (incl. 
No. Coveys 
Observed 


) 

10 


12 


21 


7 


15 


10 


3 


2 


1 


134 


14.3 


Per cent of 
Total 


5o5 


6.5 


10.9 


3.3 


3.2 


5»5 


4<>4 


1.1 


0.6 







- 7a - 



- 15 - 



CO 


CO 


>- 


>- 


Ul 


LxJ 


> 


> 


o 


o 


o 


o 


<o 


•st 


U) 


CO 


«* 


1 


L/) 


to 


o> 


CD 


— 


— 


I 

CO 


1 

to 


<tf 


ID 


o> 


05 




CO 



o 



cr> 



CO 



c- 



co 



lo 



CO 



OJ 



03Aa3Sao SA3A00 "11V JO 1N30 U3d 



- 16 - 

The analyses of long term weather records might show 
correlations between population trends over the years o We are 
particularly interested in comparing I960 and 1961 spring and 
summer weather. Superficially the nesting and post-nesting 
seasons during these years appeared to be similar and as Table 
1 indicates, approximately the same percentage of juveniles hatched 
after July 26. Obvious differences occurred, however. Coveys were 
much larger (in numbers) in 1961, averaging 14o $ birds per covey 
compared to 11.4 in I960. 

It was evident, however, that some large coveys were 
composed of relatively immature birds, some of an age generally 
associated with small covey size. Also, the moult on adult birds 
was much later than normal. Some adults still had not shed their 
last three primaries by October 1st, and one adult female still 
retained her outermost primary on October 23rd, the latest stage 
of adult moult we have recorded. 

Several comments can be made concerning the relatively 
large but immature coveys observed in 196lo It is possible that 
small coveys may band together, in late summer, thus masking actual 
brood size, but during the past six years at least, I do not think 
this has occurred at all frequently,. 

The juvenile-adult and juvenile-adult female ratios for 
I960 and 1961 show marked differences (see Table 5)- This streng- 
thens the theory that real differences in clutch size, or survival 
of young, occurred between the two years «> 

Several competent observers remarked on the frequency with 
which large coveys were encountered in 1961, and several have con- 
firmed my theory that a good many large coveys were composed of 
relatively immature birds. However, in light of other studies, 
it is difficult to associate large coveys of immature birds with 
initial nesting attempts t Westerskov (1956) states that "decline 
in clutch size with advance of season is the rule in most single- 
brooded birds. ... . ... o . .Most single-brooded birds will lay a new, 

but smaller clutch, if the first nest is destroyed." A decline in 
clutch-size with advance of the breeding season appears to be the 
rule in North American game birds. Yeatter (1934) observed a 
decrease in clutch size from 19 in June to 9 in August in the 
partridge» Leopold (1933) recorded a similar decline in the 
Bobwhite Quail. Hamerstrom (1939) found that mean clutch-size 
decreased from 15 in early April to 7 in early June in the Prairie 
Chicken. Other workers have shown similar decreases in clutch-size 
in pheasants as the nesting season progresses. 

From this array of evidence one might conclude that 
"joining up" in fact did occur frequently in 1961. I find this view 
difficult to reconcile, however, since many very small coveys were in 
evidence in I960, and few were present in 1961. I have a feeling 
that differences in weather during the two nesting seasons caused 
renesting in I960 and perhaps lower juvenile survival, while it 
delayed nesting events to a greater extent in 1961. 



- 17 - 



Sex and Age Ratios 



Table 4 shows the number, sex, and age of partridge checked 
during open seasons for the period 1949-1961. A complete resume of 
data is included for record purposes. 



Table 4. 



Hungarian Partridge Checked 1950-1961 



Year 


Sample 
Size 


Adults 
66 22 


Unsexed 


Juveniles 
66 22 


Unsexed 


1950 


140 


11 


13 




52 


59 


5 


1951 


169 


21 


10 


1 


53 


74 


10 


1952 


153 


24 


10 


4 


48 


44 


23 


1953 


252 


50 


45 




57 


94 


6 


1954 


213 


33 


20 




53 


84 


23 


1955 


12 





2 




4 


6 


— 


1956 


35 


8 


4 




13 


10 


— 


1957 


140 


11 


9 




62 


57 


1 


1952 


209 


27 


15 


1 


80 


85 


1 


1959 


466 


40 


36 




147 


166 


77 


I960 


623 


99 


70 


2 


177 


187 


m 


1961 


631 


62 


56 


3 


185 


223 


102 


Totals 


3,043 


336 


290 


11 


931 


1,089 


336 



Table 5 contains sex and age ratios for the years 
1957 - 1961. These data for previous years are included in our 
report covering the period January 1, I960 to January 31, 1961. 



Table 5 



Sex and Age Ratios of Hungarian Partridge 











Hunters 9 


Bags 1957 - 


1961 


Year 




Total Birds 


Juv/Adult 


Juv/Ad 2 


% Adult 
66 22 


% Juv. 
66 22 


1957 




140 


6.0 


13c3 


55.0 


45..0 


52.1 47.9 


1958 




209 


3c9 


11.0 


64d 


35.9 


48.4 51.6 


1959 




466 


5.1 


11.1 


53.0 


47.0 


46.9 53.1 


I960 




623 


2.6 


6.5 


58.5 


41.5 


48,6 51.4 


1961 




631 


4.2 


9.1 


52.5 


47.5 


45.4 54.6 


12 year average 
(1950-1961) 


3o4 


7.9 


57«1 


42.9 


46.1 53.9 



- 13 - 

The 1961 juvenile/adult and juvenile/adult female 
ratios are higher than those for I960, and are higher than the 
long term average. 

The 1961 juvenile sex ratio is similar to the long term 
average; the adult sex ratios, although favouring males, is less 
heavily weighted in this direction than the long term average. 

The juvenile: adult ratio, 12 yr. ave. 3.4:1, has been 
higher in eastern Ontario Huns than in many other partridge popu- 
lations; this has been particularly apparent in the period 1956-61, 
during which the juv.: adult ratio averaged 3.7:1- 

Reports of the English I.C.Io Game Services concerning 
their experimental estate at Fordingbridge, Hampshire, indicate 
very low fall juvenile: adult ratios, e.g. 1.6 in 1955, .86 in 
1953, and 1.2 in 1959. Hickey & McCabe (1953) found a juv.: adult 
ratio of 3*29 in 296 hunter killed Huns in Wisconsin. 

In Saskatchewan, Folker, (1961) reported an average 
province wide juv*: adult partridge ratio of 3«0 from 1957-1960 
inclusive. During these years the ratio varied between 2.8 and 
3.6 young per adult. 

Johnson (I960) reported on juvenile: adult ratios in 
North Dakota Huns as follows: 



Year 



Juvenile: Adult Ratio 



No. in Sample 



1950 
1951 
1952 

1955 
1956 
1957 
1958 
1959 



3 . 27:1 
2 . 2o : 1 

1.44:1 

3.07:1 
4.35:1 
3.73:1 
2.97:1 
2.41:1 



94 
82 

33 

497 

624 

1,254 

1,965 

1,160 



Only in 1956 and 1958 did juvenal : adult ratios in 
North Dakota exceed the Kemptville 12 year average; during most 
years the Dakota ratios are considerably lower than the 3.7:1 
Kemptville average for 1956-61. 

Westerskov (1951) found juvenile: adult ratios of 
6,065 Huns harvested in Denmark in 1949 (a very "good" year) to 
be 4.07. 



- 19 - 

Edminster (1954) states that in general "An age ratio 
exceeding about 2.2 juveniles per adult is usually indicative of 
equal or increasing populations, whereas a ratio below 2.2:1 
reflects lower numbers in proportion to the lowness of the ratio." 

From the above evidence it appears that Huns enjoy 
particularly good juvenile survival up until the hunting season in 
eastern Ontario. It is also possible that age ratios during the 
1956-61 period have been influenced by larger clutch size. 

Percentage of Young to Adult 

Westerskov (195&) found juvenile-adult percentages in 
hunter killed partridge to be 78. and 18.0 per cent, respectively, 
in Denmark in 1949. He states that "in the autumn in a good partridge 
year there are 80 per cent young birds and 20 per cent adults." 
It is evident from table 6 that Huns have had some "good" years in 
eastern Ontario. 

Table 6. Proportions of Adults and Juveniles 

Taken by Hunters 1950-1961 



Year 


Sample Size 


No. 
Adults 


No. 
Juveniles 


Per cent 
Adults 


Per cent 
Juveniles 


1950 


140 


24 


116 


17.1 


82.9 


1951 


169 


32 


137 


18.9 


81.1 


1952 


153 


33 


115 


24o8 


75.2 


1953 


252 


95 


157 


37.7 


62.3 


1954 


213 


53 


160 


24»9 


75.1 


1955 


12 


2 


10 


16.6 


83.4 


1956 


35 


12 


23 


34.2 


65.8 


1957 


140 


20 


120 


14.3 


85.7 


1958 


209 


43 


166 


20.6 


79.4 


1959 


466 


76 


390 


16.3 


83.7 


1960 


623 


171 


452 


27.4 


72.6 


1961 


631 


121 


510 


19.2 


80.8 



Total 3,043 687 2,356 

12 year average, 687 ads., 2,356 juvs. 22.6 77.4 



- 20 - 

During four of the past five years juvenile partridge 
have represented between 79 and $5 per cent of the hunters take and 
juveniles have averaged 77 »4 per cent of the bag during the past 
12 years o 

Since 1957 > the proportion of juveniles has fallen below 
the long term average only in I960, the year of low average covey 
size» It is also interesting to note that the average percentage of 
juveniles from 1950 to 1954 inclusive is 73 «9 compared to 79«3 
per cent for the period 1957 - 1961 inclusive; the years 1955 and 
1956 have not been included in these calculations because of small 
sample size. 

Hunter Success 

Hunting pressure was similar to that of I960, with perhaps 
a slightly greater number of hunters participatinge Most hunting 
is done during the first two weeks, and the Winchester-Chesterville 
area is still the most popular with Hun hunters. Motel accomo- 
dations in the Morrisburg and Iroquois areas are attracting a 
growing number of hunters and the areas north of these towns 
(especially Iroquois) are receiving more gunning pressure each year. 

Although table 7 indicates that hunters enjoyed success 
sinilar to that of I960, I believe shooting was better in 1961; 
certainly the larger average covey size was a factor in this respect . 
Coveys appeared somewhat wilder in 1961; even early in the season 
some immature coveys seemed more "restless" than usual. This was 
remarked upon by several experienced Hun shooters and my personal 
observations bore this out on several occasions,, It is difficult 
to explain the reason for this wildness, if in fact it was 
generally more pronounced than usual, but weather conditions may 
have been a factor. 

Table 7 shows success for the past six years c 

Table 7e Hunting Success 1956-1961 

Year No. Gun-Days Birds Taken Birds/Gun Day 

1956 12 35 2o9 

1957 56 im 3.3 

1958 40 146 3 06 

1959 77 371 4.3 

1960 194 747 3-9 

1961 159. 626 3.9 

As of March 1, 1962, coveys appear to be of average size 
and the partridge population seems to have overwintered in very good 
condition; blessed with good spring and summer weather there should 
be a good crop of Huns for the 1962 season. 



- 21 - 

Literature Cited 

Bureau, Louis, 1911 • L v Age des Perdrix. I* - La Perdrix grise. 
Bull. Soc. Sco Nat, Ouest France (Nantes), 3 e ser , 
1:1-124, 35 figs, (not seen) 

Edrainster, F. Co 1954o American Game Birds of Field and Forest . 
Charles Scribner 9 s Sons, New York, 

Folker, R. V. 1961. Sex and Age Ratios of Sharptailed Grouse and 
Hungarian Partridge 1957-1960 . Mimoe. Rept. Dept. Nat. 
Resources. Regina, Sask. 

Hamerstrom, F, No, Jr c 1939o A Study of Wisconsin Prairie Chicken 
and Sharptailed Grouse. Wilson Bull., 51:105-120. 

Hickey, J, J. and R„ A McCabe, 1953« Sex and Age Classes in the 
Hungarian Partridge. Jour. Wildl. Mgt. 17(1): Jan. 

I.C.I. Game Services Yearly Reports. I.C.I. Game Research Station, 
Fordingbridge, Hampshire, England. 

Johnson, Morris D. I960. 1959 European Partridge Sex and Age Study. 
Pittman-Robertson Mimeo. Rept., North Dakota Game & Fish 
Dept , 

Leopold, Aldo. 1933 • Game Management. Charles Scribner*s Sons, New 
York. 

McCabe, R, A. and A. S. Hawkins. 1946. The Hungarian Partridge in 
Wisconsin. American Midland Naturalist, 36 (1): July. 

Middleton, A. D. 1935o Factors controlling the population of the 
Partridge ( Perdix perdix ) in Great Britain. Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lon. 1935:795-8l5o 

Petrides, G. A, 1951 » Notes on Age Determination in Juvenal European 
Quail. Jour. Wildl. Mgt., 15(1): Jan. 

Westerskov, K. E. 1956. Productivity of New Zealand Pheasant Popu- 
lations. Wildl. Pub. No. 40B., New Zealand Dept. Int. Affs. 



1951o 0m Aldersfordeling og Goldhed;Arerhpnsebes- 



tanden. Vildbiol. Station Kalo , medd. nr.4. Rept. from 
Dansk Jagtt., 68(3):26-2B. English summary. 



1957c The Value of Renesting in Game Birds. Wild 



Pub, No. B, New Zealand Dept. Int. Affs 



1958. The Partridge as a Game Bird. Wild. Publ. 



No. 51, New Zealand Dept. Int. Affs 

featter, R. E., 1934o The Hungarian Partridge in the Great Lakes 
Region. Bull. No. 5? Univ. Mich. School For. & Cons., 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 



- 22 - 

STRYCHNINE POISON TESTING PROGRAM, KENORA DISTRICT 

1962 

by 
Mo Linklater 

Abstract 

The 1962 Poison Testing Program in the Kenora District 
involved the use of strychnine tablets inserted in 
baits of beaver and deer meat,, In total, 12 bait 
stations were established over the same general 
transect as in the previous year,. Each station con- 
sisted of two baits of either beaver or deer with 
alternate stations covered over with evergreen branches,. 
Baits were frozen and prepared at Kenora prior to being 
set out. All baits were securely anchored and poison 
warning posters attached to marker trees. The program 
was initiated on January 9, 1962 and all stations were 
operative by January 26, 1962. The project for the 
current year was terminated on April 13th. The cumu- 
lative total kill was: 7 timber wolves, 18 foxes, 
2 fishers, 1 bobcat, 1 skunk, 7 ravens and 1 crow. 



Introduction 

Under a directive issued by the Research Branch of the 
Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, Maple, Ontario, experiments 
with the use of poisons have been carried out in the forested regions 
of the Kenora District for the past four years. 

The first experiment was conducted during the winter of 
1953-59 anc * involved the use of compound 1080 (Sodium Fluoroacetate) . 
The following year the experiment was pursued further, applying the 
same techniques and establishing the bait station in the same area. 
During the winter of 1960-61, the program was stepped up and 
broadened to include the use of strychnine. A study area was 
established on a circuitous route out from Kenora for a distance 
of 250 air miles with ten strychnine bait stations set up on 
various lakes on the transect route. One 1080 station was established 
within the perimeter of the transect. 

The current year's program involved the exclusive use of 
strychnine tablets inserted in beaver and deer meat. 

Objectives 



1. To study methods of setting out poison baits that will reduce 
the kill of birds, particularly ravens. 

2„ To find the most efficient method of controlling wolf numbers 
when and where the need arises. 



- 23 - 

3o To compare the average kill of wolves made at a double bait 
station to the average kill at the single bait stations in 
the Port Arthur - Sioux Lookout Program, 

Bait Stations : 

The 1962 program consisted of twelve stations as compared 

with the ten in operation the preceding year Nine of the stations 

were located on the same lakes as the previous year. One was 

relocated and new stations set up on Shoal and Gordon Lakes ■ 

To avoid problems in interpretation of the data on covered 
and uncovered baits, all stations were either beaver or deer meat 
with two baits at each station.. All the stations set with deer 
baits were covered while all the beaver stations but one were left 
uncovered • The second bait at each station was set approximately 
75 feet from the first bait. Five of the stations were located 
50 yards from shore, four at 75 yards and three at 100 yards. 

Prepari n g the Baits 

Baits were frozen and prepared at Kenora prior to being 
set out, Beaver carcasses weighed from 10 to 15 lbs., deer baits 
approximately 20 lbs. 

To expedite the loading of baits, a small electric hand 
drill with a 1/4 inch bit was used to drill holes in the meat. 
Strychnine tablets, each consisting of two grains were inserted in 
the openings and the holes closed by pounding with a hammer. 

Setting the Bait 

An ice auger was utilized to cut a hole in the ice and 
bring the water up. Each bait was frozen into mounds of slush 
leaving the largest portion of the meat protruding from the mound. 

Baits v. r ere anchored by securing the meat and a heavy 
piece of scrap iron to opposite ends of a length of baling wire. 
The weight was then dropped through the ice thickness and left 
suspended in the water. 

Evergreen markers were placed on two sides of each bait 
and poison warring posters attached to each marker tree. 

Progr am Records 

All stations were located on a 24A map of the Kenora - 
Rainy River Districts and were identified alphabetically from "A" 
to "L" 

A summary sheet was maintained for each station on which 
was recorded all pertinent data. 

Records were kept of moose, deer and wolf sightings as 
Well as evidence of wolf predation on deer. The locations were 
pinpointed on a flight map and later transferred to a diagram 
sheet of the transect which was forwarded to Toronto after each 

flight e 



- 24 - 

Specimen tags were attached to poisoned wolves where they 
fell and numbered consecutively with the letters KE preceding the 
number. Dead wolves were recovered and shipped to Southern 
Research Station, Maple, Ontario, All birds killed at the stations 
were picked up and burned . 

Results 

The program was initiated on January 9> 1962 and all 
stations established by January 26, 1962. During the intervening 
period, six complete checks were made of the baits on the transect 
route o Additional flights were made to single stations to check on 
reports of dead animals at the baits. The project for the current 
year was terminated on April 13? 1962 

TABLE I 



Uncovered Baits 
Covered Baits 



Timber 
Wolves 


Fox 


Fisher 


Bobcat 


Skunk 


Ravens 


Crows 


5 
2 


10 


nil 
2 


1 
nil 


1 
nil 


5 
2 


1 
nil 



7 13 2 1 17 1 

Discussion and Conclusion 

An analysis of the data shows a reduced kill of most 
species at covered baits. However, since the total kill was small 
and all deer baits covered, we do not feel a strict appraisal is 
justified as to the relative merits of the covered and uncovered 
baits. 

The heavy slush conditions that existed on the majority 
of lakes and the more than usual amount of snow during the winter, 
may have been a contributing factor in the rather small number of 
animals taken. It is known that deer are plentiful in the District 
and the few wolf-killed deer found on the transect route suggests 
that wolves were not frequenting the lakes as usual but were 
pursuing and killing their prey in the woods. 

Poisoned animals were found at varying distances from 
the stations. One timber wolf was picked up 200 yards away, while 
the bobcat was found in the immediate vicinity of the bait. The 
skunk travelled 200 yards before dropping,. The majority of the 
foxes were found within a radius of 50 feet of the station. The 
remains of two fisher were found approximately 200 yards from one 
of the stations, however, the number of signs in the vicinity 
indicates that they were probably carried to the spot by ravens. 

During the early part of January , timber wolves brought 
down a moose about 500 yards from station V? B" on Meridian Bay and 
returned repeatedly to feed on the remains. On other occasions, 
wolves visited different stations without touching the baits. From 
these observations and the results of past experiments it is 
apparent that timber wolves are selective in their dietary habits. 
Their behaviour where set baits are concerned indicates that, 
unless the beasts are very hungry, they will shun the meat of 
animals not killed by themselves. 



- 25 - 

The results from the current year v s program suggest that 
the baits should be at least 100 yards from the shore-line, which 
would perhaps reduce the kill of fur-bearers and other wildlife 
while not reducing the efficiency of the baits „ 

Summary sheets of the stations, containing all pertinent 
data are being forwarded to personnel of the wolf control program,, 

Acknowledgments 

Conservation Officer T„ Humberstone was largely responsible 
for the field work, maintaining records and the quantity and quality 
of the data gathered during the course of the study,, His good work 
and co-operation is appreciated c 

Thanks are due also to other personnel of the Kenora 
District Fish and Wildlife staff who assisted in the project and 
to Fish and Wildlife Supervisor P„ A„ Thompson and District Biologist 
W. He Charlton for their constructive criticisms of this report. 



- 26 - 
REPORT ON PENAGE LAKE ANGLING SUCCESS, 1961 

by 
D. R Hughson 
Conservation Officer 
Sudbury District 

Abstract 

Creel censuses have been conducted on Penage Lake, 
Sudbury District in I960 and 1961 • This report com- 
pares the fishing for the two years . The greatest 
difference occurred during the months of February and 
March, 1961, which was due chiefly to good driving 
conditions on the lake, as the winter had a very light 
snowfall . In the winter of 1961, 10,399 hours of 
angling by 1,477 anglers produced a catch of 322 lake 
trout, 151 yellow pickerel and 13 pike, a total of 
4B6 fish. These figures represent 50 per cent of the 
total angling pressure and catch for the three winter 
months. An estimate of the total catch would, therefore, 
be 972 fish weighing approximately 2,500 to 3>000 pounds. 
As well as an increase in angling pressure in 1961, 
angling success also improved due possibly to the in- 
creased light below the ice and also to the fact that 
anglers could drive to many locations not previously 
subjected to winter angling. It is interesting to 
note that these new areas produced the best fishing. 



Introduction 

This is the second year a creel census has been taken on 
Penage Lake and the most significant comparison is the number of 
anglers during the winter period. I960 was a winter of normal or 
above normal snowfall. In 1961, the snowfall was extremely light 
and travel on the lake by motor vehicle was good from the first 
week in January till late March. 

As in other years, opposition to winter angling was main- 
tained by camp owners, due to theft of firewood and a few camps 
being broken into. In contrast, however, at the end of the winter 
the ice surface was noticeably free of logs and debris, also, in- 
fractions of the Game and Fisheries Act and Regulations were few and 
were limited to the use of multiple lines. 

The 1961 summer census was limited by other district pro- 
jects conducted by the Fish and Wildlife staff during the spring and 
summer . 

Objective 

The main purpose in continuing this census is to have a 
record of angling success and angling pressure particularly during 
the winter months for future reference. It is evident from these 
two censuses, that winter angling has grown in popularity to such an 



- 27 - 

extent that when travel conditions permit, it far surpasses the pres- 
sure of summer angling on Penage Lake. For description of the lake 
see Report on Penage Lake Angling Success, I960 (Hughson) . 

Method 

The winter census was carried out in late afternoon as 
the anglers were leaving the lake. Due to the fact that all cars 
leave the lake at one place it was possible to check nearly 100 per 
cent of the anglers on the days mentioned. Patrols were made on the 
lake during the day by car. 

The summer work was done by spot checks at irregular times. 
The summer angling was recorded as the actual hours spent fishing. 
The winter anglers who fished all day, as 90 per cent of them do, 
were recorded as angling seven hours which was the calculated average. 
An allowance was made for those few angling only a few hours. This 
is the same method as used in I960. 

Table 1 - shows the daily catch for the days of survey in 1961; 

Table 2 - indicates monthly angling pressure and catch by species 
for I960 and 1961; 

Table 3 - gives angling success for lake trout by month and 
average lengths I960 and 1961; 

Table 4 - shows fish of any species caught per 100 rod/hours 
and per cent of total angling hours in the survey 
spent each month; 

Table 5 - gives a comparison of winter angling success for 
I960 and 1961. 

Summary and Conclusion 

1« The increase in trout and pickerel caught in the winter 

of 1961 was due largely to snow conditions on the lake. Heavy angling 

pressure remained throughout February and March. 

2o The increase in angling success in January and February 
in terms of fish per 100 rod/hours as seen in Table 4 could be due 
to the increase in light below the ice because of little snow depth, 

3« The figures in Table 2 representing 50 per cent of the winter 
fishery would give an estimated total catch of 972 fish (trout, pick- 
erel and pike) being taken in this three month period. The average 
weight of the fish caught was 2\ to 3 pounds, therefore, 2,500 to 
3,000 pounds of trout and pickerel were taken during the winter of 
1961. 

4° The sample size of the summer fishery of 1961 is small 
due to other district projects and is, therefore, not of too much 
value. One point that was noticeable during patrols and which also 
shows up in Table 2 was the low catch of yellow pickerel in the month 
of June. This may be attributed to water level and temperature, as 
the spring months of 1961 were cool and overcast. 



- 2d - 

5„ The size of trout and pickerel caught in the winter, range 
from 10" to 30", but average 18" - 22", indicating a good range in 
age classes, especially in the lake trout. Every effort is made to 
maintain a constant water level from fall till March to obtain good 
lake trout reproduction., 

6* The winter of 1961 put on the heaviest angling pressure 
that this lake is likely to receive and was possible detrimental to 
the fishery. These conditions were abnormal, however, and unlikely 
to occur frequently. The ice fishing could have been closed from 
February till March and this would have prevented the removal of 
many trout and pickerel, 

7» As indicated in last year 9 s report the main benefit 
derived from winter angling is recreational with rather light catches 
of fisho In 1961, one angler in three took a fish home after seven 
hours fishing, 

S. This creel census is being continued through 1962, 

Reference 

Hughson, Do R,, I960, Report on Penage Lake Angling Success, I960 
Fish and Wildlife Management Report, No. 5#, PP» 48-55 » 



- 29 - 

TABLE 1 
DAILY RECORD OF CATCH, LAKE PENAGE. 1961 

Noc 



Date; 


Anglers 


Trout 


Pickerel 


Line; 


Whitefish 


Bass 


Pike 


Jan, 1* 


4 


3 


8 




2 






2 


14 


6 


6 


1 








8* 


102 


25 


13 


11 








14 


34 


16 


17 


3 


1 






22* 


127 


17 


9 


6 






1 


29* 


184 


51 


17 


8 






2 


Feb, 4 


65 


24 


18 




1 






7 


33 


3 


3 










a 


15 


4 












ii 


16 




3 










12* 


260 


61 


7 


23 


1 




2 


13 


5 


1 


2 










14 


3 


1 












19 * 


29 


9 


15 








3 


25 


39 


1 


1 


1 








26* 


138 


37 


10 


3 






1 


Mar. 4 


80 


17 


2 


2 


1 






5* 


105 


12 


9 


8 






4 


11 


21 


2 


1 




1 






12* 


144 


32 


10 


10 


2 






31 


9 














y 27 


10 




4 








1 


Jun^. 10 


23 




1 








2 


11 


28 




1 








2 


lb- 


12 


2 












July 16 


11 


1 








2 




23 


13 


2 








5 




Augo 2 3 


7 


1 


4 






1 




16 


20 


i 








13 




20 


24 


10 


3 






18 




Sept. 9 


16 


4 








7 




15 


9 


5 












23 


6 




2 
















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- 31 - 

TABLE 3 - LAKE TROUT ANGLING SUCCESS BY MONTH 

AND AVERAGE SIZE IN TOTAL LENGTH, 1960-1961 



Month 


Trout per 
Rod/Hour 
1960 1961 


Average 
Total 
1960 


Size 
Len 


in Inches 
gth 
1961 


January 

February 

March 


.01 
»03 
c03 




.03 
.03 
.02 


19.5 
17.6 
17.8 




19.5 
18.8 
17.6 


May 

June 

July 

August 

September 


.22 

.02 
.12 
.11 




.14 
.21 

c28 
.37 


19.1 
25.1 

18.2 

24.7 







In 1961 angling for trout during the summer was only 
0.9 per cent of the total time spent fishing for trout, 
but produced 7.5 per cent of the total trout caught. 



TABLE 4 - MONTHLY ANGLING SUCCESS AND 
DISTRIBUTION OF ANGLING HOURS IN SURVEY 





Fish 


per 100 
/Hours 


Percentag 


2 of Total 




Rod 


Angling 


Hours 




Any Species 






Month 


1960 




1961 


1960 


1961 


January 


1.7 




5.2 


66.9$ 


33.3% 


February 


3.9 




4.9 


9.4% 


38.9% 


March 


3.7 




3.5 


9.5$ 


23.2% 


May 


8.7 




11.9 


1.055 


0.4% 


June 


18.7 




4.3 


3.7% 


1.7% 


July 


25.8 




17.2 


6.6% 


0.5% 


August 


31.8 




37.5 


2.8% 


1.3% 


September 






26.1 




0.6% 



- 32 - 

TABLE 5 -WINTER ANGLING SUCCESS, LAKE PENAGE . 1960-1961 

Fish per Fish Caught 
Lake 100 per 

Year Anglers Hours Trout Pickerel Pike rod/hours 100 Anglers 



I960 
1961 



858 
1,477 



6,006 
10,339 



97 
322 



58 
151 



13 



2.6 

Zf 4 



18.0 
31.1 



; I • 






- 33 - 

FALL CREEL CENSUS ON LAKE SIMCOE, 1961 

by 

K. Tnuesdell 

Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

A fall creel census was again carried out on Lake 
Simcoe from November 11 to December 10, 1961. During 
this period the whitefish was the principal species 
angled for comprising 97.35% of the 2,718 fish taken. 
Anglers were checked on 14 days at five different 
locations on the lake. Water temperatures were re- 
corded when a two degree or more variation was noticed, 
to determine the effect this might have on angling 
success. Hours per fish for 1961 was .949 as compared 
with .522 for I960. Total number of hours spent on 
actual creel census was 4&«5» 



Introduction 

For the second successive fall a creel census was conducted 
on the south and east side of Lake Simcoe. This appears to be the 
most productive part of the lake at this time of the year, with fair 
catches reported on some days at Carthew Bay on the west side of the 
lake. High winds during November and December made the check rather 
difficult and trips across the lake, with one exception, prohibitive. 

Objective 



To determine fishing pressure during the fall; also the 
harvest during this period and comparing it with the previous year's 
harvest. 

Method 



Five locations were used for the census which was conducted 
on fourteen days over a thirty day period. Weather and other com- 
mitments prevented a daily checkc Number of boats, anglers, hours 
and fish by species were recorded and compiled for each location. 

Observations 



Harvest and fishing pressure was heaviest on the west side 
of Georgina Island as indicated by Tables 1 and 2. Carthew Bay 
showed the least hours per fish, but was checked only once and conse- 
quently could not be considered an accurate figure. During the fall 
of I960, angling pressure and success at Beaverton was fair, but 
1961 showed a decided drop in both. On two weekends in December 
there were no boats. Anglers who had previously fished exclusively 
at Beaverton were found at Georgina Island and Jackson's Point. 
Ovaries from fish examined revealed the beginning of 1962 spawn. 
Anglers at Carthew Bay presented an odd sight as they used fish huts 
mounted on rafts, instead of the conventional open boat from which 
to fish. 



- 34 - 

Conclusion 

Two years of creel census could hardly indicate a trend, 
but in 1961, «427 hours more were required to catch a fish than in 
I960. Most of the anglers were repeaters, fishing in both periods, 
using the same bait and method. As previously pointed out a definite 
opinion could hardly be formed on two periods of creel census, however, 
Table 4 seems to indicate that some changes in management are neces- 
sary if the Lake Simcoe fishery is to be conserved „ 

Acknowledgment 

I wish to thank biologist A„ Wainio for his age and growth 
rate table of whitefish taken from Lake Simcoe. 



- 35 



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- 36 - 



TABLE 2: 



Location 



Harvest and Fishing Pressure at Five Locations 

Georgina Jackson's Sibbald Carthew 
Island Beaverton Point Point Bay 



No. Fish 2087 

No. Anglers 473 

Days Checked 14 

Hours per Fish 2.35 



151 

145 

6 

9.19 



391 

£5 

7 

2.6 



68 

29 

2 

2.91 



21 
4 
1 

.59 



TABLE 3; 



Age No. 



Age and Growth Rate - Whitefish (25^ subsample) 



Average Total 
Length 
(inches) 



Length 
Range 
( inches) 



Average 

Weight 

(lbs) 



Weight 
Range 
(lbs) 



5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



8 
6 

5 
11 

9 
2 
2 
2 



11.3 
13.7 
14.3 
14.8 
16.6 
18.3 
21.8 
23.4 



9.0-13.0 
12.5-16.5 
12. 5-16. 5 
14.0-16.0 

15. 0-18. 25 

17.0-19.5 

21.5-22.0 

23.0-23.75 



.5 (1 fish) 
.81 .5 - 1.5 

.75 .75 (2 fish) 
1.125 1 - 1.25 (2 fish) 



5.1 4.5 - 5.75 (2 fish) 



TABLE 4: 

Total Hours Fish 
No. days No. No. White- Lake Man- Per Per 

Year Census Boats Anglers fish Trout Ling Perch Hours Fish Angler 



1960 


8 


174 


358 


1924 


4 


3 


1961 


14 


357 


736 


2646 


8 


15 



1008.25 .522 5.4 
49 2579.50 .949 3.7 



I 



- 



• - 37 - 

A STUDY OF RAINBOW TROUT IN THE NOTTAWASAGA RIVER SYSTEM 
WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FISHWAY AT NICOLSTON DAM 

by 

Fred He Marshall 

Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

This project was designed to learn if rainbow trout 
use the fishway in the fall. Studies during October 
and November indicated that the fall run was only 8.9 
per cent that of spring. Forty-nine rainbows were 
captured and tagged. Of these seven or 13.7 per cent 
bore lamprey scars. Very few other species of fish 
use the fishway in the fall. Recommendations are 
made concerning future operations of the fishway. 



Introduction 

A fishway was constructed at the Nicolston dam on the 
Nottawasaga river during the winter of 1960-61. It was in operation 
during the spring of 1961. Although the study did not start until 
April 15, 574 adult rainbow trout were captured, tagged and released. 

This paper will describe the 1961 fall studies of this 
species at the fishway. 

The study was planned to determine: 

(a) The number of rainbow trout using the fishway. 

(b) The number of other species of fish using the fishway. 

(c) Does the fishway operate successfully in the fall? 

To learn the answers to these questions the following study 
was planned: 

1. To open the fishway at intervals of 2-3 days during 
September to determine the start of the run. 

2. To make observations at the fishway during the period 
of the run. 

3. To capture, tag and release above the fishway all the 
trout entering the fishway. 

4» To count the number of other fish species entering the 
fishway. 



- 36 - 
Acknowledgment 

I wish to acknowledge the help of Mr. Wm. Moir who assist- 
ed in the study,. 

Observations 

The fishway is located on the north side of the Nicolston 
dam and consists of a series of small dams at approximately eight 
foot intervals throughout a passageway five feet wide and 80 feet 
long. A cage or trap is located near the upper end of the fishway 
which makes the capture and control of fish entering the fishway 
possible. 

The fishway was first opened on September 15 and at inter- 
vals of two to three days thereafter for three hours each day until 
the first trout were captured October 3rd. It was opened daily for 
an average of six hours during the remainder of October and all 
of November. The water levels were quite low during the entire run 
although there were periods when it did rise slightly. There are 
daily fluctuations caused by the operation of a grist mill immed- 
iately above the dam. The fall of leaves plugged the screens on the 
cage and in the by-pass and had to be cleaned often. A temporary 
boom was placed at a forty-five degree angle upstream from the fish- 
way entrance and this diverted the majority of the leaves past the 
fishway opening. 

The rainbow trout do not attempt to ascend the dam in the 
fall as they do in the spring, none were observed jumping during the 
study. During the period October 8 to 13 the water temperatures were 
up between 57°? and 62°F and at this time 31 trout were captured; 
this was over half the number secured during the entire run. One 
speckled trout, three brown trout and seven white suckers were also 
caught. No lampreys were observed at the fishway during the study. 
Approximately 12 white suckers and one rock bass were found dead 
above the cage. They had apparently come in from upstream and were 
unnoticed when the water was closed off. 

Fish Tagging 

The fish were captured by means of the cage or trap in the 
fishway. The entrances to the trap are closed and the cage is raised 
by means of a hoist until approximately eight inches of water remain 
in the cage to insure that the fish are not injured. Then the fish 
are removed from the cage by means of hand dip nets for tagging. 

All the trout captured were measured, tagged, scale samples 
taken and the fish released above the fishway. Of fifty-one rainbow 
trout captured 49 were tagged; one of these lost the tag during 
release, two had been tagged previously with tag numbers 132275 
Female, 25 inches, and 132814 Male, 27 inches (measurements from tip 
of snout to tip of tail with lobes compressed). Seven or 13.7 per cent 
of the rainbow trout bore lamprey scars and of these scars only one 
was raw or fresh. 



- 39 - 

Summary 

Our observations indicated the following: 

1. A much smaller number of rainbow trout reach the fishway 
in the fall as compared to the spring. This fall run was 
approximately S.9 per cent of the number captured during 
the spring of 1961 o 

2. A very small number of other species of fish use the 
fishway during the fall. 

3o Water temperatures appear to have some effect on the 
time the fish enter the fishway, 

4. The fishway works as well in the fall as in the spring 
with the exception of those periods when the leaf fall is 
heavy. 

5. There were no lampreys observed at the fishway. 

6. A one-quarter inch wire mesh was fastened to the 
present screens to insure that no lampreys could pass 
through the fishway. 

Recommendations 

It is the writer 9 s opinion that this study should be 
continued in the spring of 1962 during the entire fish run which 
usually starts about March 15 and continues well into May and again 
in the fall for the months of October and November. These periods 
may vary from one year to the next "depending on the freeze-up and 
break-up periods. 

This study indicates that very few coarse fish enter the 
fishway in the fall. However, it is recommended that it be manned 
during the fish runs and the trap used until such time as adequate 
information has been obtained on this species and until the lamprey 
control programme is complete in the watershed. 

A large boom could be placed above the fishway entrance 
to insure that debris does not enter. The present lift cage is much 
heavier than necessary and could be replaced with a cage of lighter 
material. An electric thermometer could be installed to take air 
and water temperatures so that an accurate account of temperature 
fluctuations could be recorded on tape. 



-RO- 
TABLE 1 - SEX RATIO OF ADULT RAINBOW TROUT CAPTURED DURING 1961 FALL 

STUDIES AT THE FISHWAY 



No. Fish 


Males 


Females 


% Males 


% Females 


51 

L . 


16 


35 


31.4 


68.6 



TABLE 2 - AGE, HISTORY, AND GROWTH OF ADULT RAINBOW TROUT CAPTURED 

DURING 1961 FALL STUDIES 



AGE 


i 


LIFE HISTORY NO. 


OF 


FISH 


AVERAGE LENGTH 


RANGE 


- 




STREAM 




LAKE 












2 




2 


/ 


pt. 1 yr. 




10 




16.0 


14.0 - 18.5 


3 




2 

3 


i 


1 
pt , 1 yr. 




19 
6 




21.3 
18.0 


18.5 - 24.0 
17.0 - 19.3 


4 




2 

3 


', 


2 
1 




7 
6 




23o7 
22.2 


20.0 - 26.0 
20.5 - 24.8 


5 




2 


/ 


3 




1 




24»0 


24.0 


49 
12 


fish were 
had spent 


aged 
three 


and of these 
years in the 


37 had 
stream 


spent 


two years 


in stream 



TABLE 3 - NUMBER OF RAINBOW TROUT CAPTURED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES 
TEMPERATURE DEGREES F NUMBER CAPTURED 



3 g 1 

46 3 

49 2 

50 6 

53 4 

54 4 

57 2 

53 9 

60 12 

6i 1 

62 7 



75 » 5 % of the fish were captured in water 
temperatures between 50°F and 62°F. 



- u - 

HATCHERY DATA AND PROCEDURES 
NORTH BAY HATCHERY, 1961 

by 
No Bo Hollingsworth 
Hatchery Manager 

Abstract 



This paper describes in some detail operations at the 
North Bay Hatchery. Descriptions and capacities of 
the holding units are given. Incubation procedures 
are described as well as food requirements and methods 
of feeding of young fish. Other phases discussed 
include mortality and growth rate; prevention and 
treatment of disease; stocking plans and distribution 

COStSo 



Index 

Page 

Hatchery Data 42 

Capacities of Holding Units 43 

Eggs - Source Incubation 44 

Size and Age Classification 44 

Foods and Feeding 45 

Conversion 47 

Cost of Food 47 

Mortality and Growth Rate by Month 4$ 

Diseases 49 

Stocking Plans 51 

Distribution 52 

Distribution Costs 54 

Transfers 5.4 

Special Equipment 55 

Miscellaneous Comments 56 



- 42 - 



Hatchery Data 
Hatchery Troughs in Hatchery Building 



Number of Troughs 

Length 

Width 

Depth 

Water Depth (Maximum) 

Water Volume 

Water Volume 

Rate of Inflow 

Rate of Change per Hour 



56 

12 feet 

10 J inches 

6k inches 

4 3/4 inches 

26 gallons 

4 cubic feet 

2j Go P. Me 

5.7 



Raceways (Rectangular Outside Troughs) 



Number of Raceways 

Length 

Width 

Depth 

Water Depth 

Water Volume 

Water Volume 

Rate of Inflow 

Rate of Change per Hour 



50 feet 
4 feet 
2 feet 
10 inches 
1104 gallons 
167 cubic feet 
75 G. P. M. 
4 



Ponds 



Number of Ponds 

Length 

Width (Average) 

Depth (Average) 

Water Depth (Average) 

Water Volume 

Water Volume 

Rate of Inflow (Estimated) 

Rate of Change per Hour 



312 feet 

22 feet 

3 feet 

3 feet 

136,024 gallons 

20,592 cubic feet 

425 G.P.M. 

.19 



The North Bay Hatchery water is supplied by springs located 
directly above the hatchery building. These springs supply the entire 
hatchery system with an estimated $50 gallons per minute. Water used 
in the hatchery troughs and outside raceways is used for a second 
time in the hatchery ponds . 

The 425 gallons per minute per pond shown as the rate of 
inflow is composed of approximately 260 gallons per minute of water 
which has previously passed over eggs or fish and 165 gallons per 
minute of water flowing directly from the headwater. 

No analysis of the chemistry of the water at the North Bay 



- 43 - 

Hatchery has been made to date. The only exception is a P.H. 
(hydrogen ion concentration) reading of 7«2 taken from the head- 
water trough March 16th, 1961. 



CAPACITIES OF HOLDING UNITS 

HATCHERY TROUGHS 

Eggs 

We usually receive 400,000 eyed speckled trout eggs and 
100,000 lake trout eggs annually. These are hatched at the rate of 
approximately 9, OX per trougho This is by no means the maximum 
capacity of the hatchery for eggs. At least twice the above number, 
or 1,000,000 eggs, could be safely hatched if overcrowding was 
avoided by planting 500,000 advanced fry early in the spring. 



hatchery trough should be 
e raceways are left empty 
ing in the hatchery before 
h or early April, depending 
are transferred from the 
50,000 per raceway. This 
5,500 lake trout per trough 
ontinues as room becomes 
on program. 



Fry 

In my opinion 9,000 fry per 
considered as being the maximum. Thre 
during the winter to prevent overcrowd 
distribution starts. During late Marc 
on the weather, 150,000 speckled trout 
hatchery to these outside raceways at 
leaves about 4,500 speckled trout and 
in the hatchery. This thinning down c 
available during the annual distributi 

RACEWAYS 

Fry 

50,000 per raceway. 

Fingerlings 

50,000 gradually reduced to 15,000 or 20,000 as room becomes 
available. 

Yearlings (Lake Trout only) 

15,000 per raceway. 
PONDS 
Fingerlings to Yearlings 

125,000 per pond (should be considered as maximum number). 
Yearlings to Two Years 

25,000 per pond (should be considered as maximum number). 



- 44 - 

EGGS 

Capacity 



Usually the North Bay Trout Rearing Station is supplied with 
500,000 eggSr As most of the plantings from this hatchery are done 
by using yearlings or two-year-old fish, 500,000 eggs are considered 
to be the optimum number, as any number above this figure would 
result in overcrowding unless a number of fish were planted as fry. 



Source 

Most of our speckled trout eggs are obtained from Dorion 
or Hills Lake Hatcheries. The lake trout eggs come from various 
sources, including Sault Ste. Marie, Wiarton, Port Arthur, etc. 
It would appear that Lake trout eggs, which are taken in most cases 
from wild fish, are getting harder to obtain each year. Perhaps 
the time has come when we should be looking for a source of supply 
within our own district. 

Incubation 

When received the eggs are placed on standard hatching 
trays made of wire screen with a rectangular mesh„ The mesh is 
narrow enough to hold the eggs but wide enough to allow the fry to 
slip through without damage. Lake trout eggs average about 175 
per ounce and speckled trout eggs about 350 per ounce. They are 
placed in the trays at 20 ounces per tray. 

There is no definite incubation period for trout eggs. 
The hatching time depends on water temperature, species of trout, 
etc. Usually, the eyed eggs are received at this hatchery early 
in December and hatch during January and February in water of 40 
degrees F. temperature. These times vary from year to year depending 
on source of supply, etc. During the incubation period the dead 
eggs, which turn white, are picked off daily. 

As heavy mortalities may occur from eggs being exposed to 
too much direct light the shades on the hatchery windows are kept 
drawn during the incubation period. 

SIZE AND AGE CLASSIFICATIONS 

When the eggs hatch the alevins are referred to as fry 
until the yolk sac is absorbed. This takes about six to eight weeks. 
When the yolk sac is absorbed the fish start to swim and feed and 
are referred to at this time as advanced fry. As far as I have been 
able to ascertain there is no difinite size or time when the fry 
become fingerlings. Some literature suggests that fish one inch in 
length b r - termed "Fingerlings No. 1", those which are one and one- 
half inches in length are designated as "Fingerlings No. lj" and so 
on. During the past few years at the North Bay Hatchery the name 
"fingerling" has been substituted for fry during the early part of 
June. At this time the speckled trout are about 1 1/4 inches in 
length and average about 1,000 per pound. After the fish become one 
year old they are referred to as yearlings until they become two- 
year-olds and so on. 



- 45 - 

FOODS AND FEEDING 

After the yolk sac is absorbed and the fish start to swim 
feeding is started „ The fish are started on finely ground liver 
which has been ground through the finest grinding plate several 
times o When we first start to grind for the fry it is necessary to 
remove the skin and tubes from the liver to enable it to pass through 
the fine grinder plates. When the fry start to feed readily they are 
fed five times daily in the amounts recommended by Deuel and Tunison 
1944 in their "Feeding Tables for Trout" . From here on these tables 
are used as a guide for the amounts to be fed during the time the 
fish are kept at the hatchery. The amounts are based on the body 
weight of the fish, taking into consideration the temperature of 
the water. 

The fish usually start to feed in March and are fed five 
times a day until about May 1st. From May 1st to June 1st they are 
fed four times daily. From June 1st to July 1st three times daily 
and from July 1st to November 15th twice daily. From November 15th 
on they are fed once a day. 

Fish food mash and hog melts are added to the liver in 
April. The amount of mash is gradually increased and the meat 
decreased until about July 1st when we are feeding meat (beef liver 
and hog melts in equal amounts) one day a week and mash six days a 
week. 

When the fish are 2\ to 3 inches in length 3/32" pellets 
are substituted for the mash c I would like to be able to obtain a 
smaller size pellet than the 3/32", a size somewhere between the 
mash and the 3/32" size. For this reason, I have asked for a coffee 
mill in which I intend to grind the larger pellets to a size which 
the smaller fish are able to swallow. 

At the North Bay Hatchery we have not been able to get 
the lake trout to take pelletted food and all lake trout at this 
station are fed entirely on beef liver and hog melts. 



- 46 



FOOD FED IN POUNDS PER THOUSAND SPECKLED TROUT 



Melts 



Month 


Liver 


March and April 


1.35 


May- 


1.47 


June 


1.07 


July 


2d4 


August 


.SB 


September 


1.1 


October 


1.23 


' November 


1.03 


December 


1.47 


January- 


1.23 


February 


2.14 


March 


2.69 


April 


2.47 


May 


3.2 


June 


3.8 


July 


9.4 


August 


12. & 


September 


10, 


October 


10. 


November 


5.52 


December 


7.4 


January 


5.6 


; February 


B. 04 


March 


10. 


April 


8.72 



.86 
2.15 
.^ 
1.1 
1.23 
1.55 
2.23 
1.87 
2.15 
2.71 
2.49 
4o 8 
6o4 

10.2 

12.8 

10. 

10. 

8.24 
11. 

8.04 
10. 
8.72 



Mash or 
Pellets 



.6 
2.14 
5.14 
8.23 
8.08 
9.82 

11.31 
12.82 
15.88 
16.65 
19.27 
28.4 
39.84 
68.16 
108. 
80.8 
62.4 
54.8 
52. 
54. 
60.48 
63. 
69.55 



FOOD FED IN POUNDS PER THOUSAND LAKE TROUT 



Month 



Liver 



Melts 



April 


.56 




May 


1.26 




June 


e 48 


1.19 


July 


1.13 


1.13 


August 


1.65 


1.65 


September 


1.98 


1.98 


October 


2.23 


1.95 


November 


2.21 


3.31 


December 


3.38 


2.25 


January 


2.07 


3.11 


February 


2.08 


2.65 


%rch 


2.48 


3.08 


^pril 


2.61 


3.91 


way 


5.59 


6.98 



- 47 - 

CONVERSION (Fish Food to Fish Flesh) 

Speckled Trout 

At the North Bay Hatchery the average monthly conversion 
is 3»9. This varies from 1,1 to 11. 5> with the best conversions 
occurring during the summer months when the water temperatures are 
highest. According to tests carried out in New York State the 
expected values for conversion normally fall between 3«0 and 4»0. 
It would appear that with the shorter season and the resultant 
lower water temperatures which occur at North Bay our conversion of 
3.9 is very good* 

Lake Trout 

Our average monthly conversion for lake trout is 11.2. 
The variation in lake trout conversion is much greater than that of 
speckled trout. In the case of lake trout at North Bay the variation 
is from 2.0 to 39«0. So far I have no way of knowing if the average 
lake trout conversion is good or not. 

COST OF FOOD 

Speckled Trout 

Food costs per thousand by month from start of feeding to 
planting as two-year-old fish: 



March and April 


^.28 


May 


.23 


June 


.33 


July 


.78 


August 


.63 


September 


o94 


October 


.96 


November 


1.10 


December 


1.33 


January 


1.40 


February 


1.81 


March 


2.03 


April 


2.14 


May 


3.27 


June 


4« 44 


July 


8.01 


August 


11.81 


September 


8.91 


October 


7c58 


November 


6.08 


December 


6.53 


January 


6.11 


February 


6.87 


March 


7.60 


April 


7-60 



- 1+8 - 

Average Cost per Pound of Fish Flesh Gained 

The average cost per month is 39. 5# per pound of fish flesh 
gained, 

LAKE TROUT 

Food costs per thousand by month from start of feeding to 
planting as yearling fish: 

April § »09 

May .16 

June • 21 

July .32 

August ,46 

September .55 

October .59 

November .75 

December .82 

January .71 

February .64 

March .75 

April .92 

May 1.83 

Average Cost per Pound of Fish Flesh Gained 

The average cost per month is 5)1.73 per pound of fish 
flesh gained. 

! MO RTALITY AND GROWTH RATE BY MONTH 

Speckled Trout 

— r , 

Month 

April 

May 

June 

; July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 





Per cent 


Growth Rate 


Temperature 


Mortalitv 


(In 


Per cent) 


44 


1. 




73 


47 


3 




60 


49 


3 




114 


49 


1.7 




104 


49 


4.4 




55 


47 


3.7 




61 


44 


3.1 




41.3 


41 


2.5 




34 


40 


1.6 




19 


40 


1.5 




21 


40 


1 




1.7 


40 


.8 




27.5 



- 49 - 



MORTALITY AND GROWTH RATE BY MONTH (Cont'd) 
Speckled Trout 



Month 


Temperature 


April 


44 


May 


47 


June 


49 


July 


49 


August 


49 


September 


47 


October 


44 


November 


41 


December 


40 


January 


40 


February 


40 


March 


40 


Lake Trout 




Month 


Temperature 


April 


44 


May 


47 


June 


49 


July 


49 


August 


49 


September 


47 


October 


44 


November 


41 


December 


40 


January 


40 


February 


40 


March 


40 


April 


44 


May 


47 


DISEASES (Preven 


tion and Tre 



Per cent 


Growth Rate 


Mortality 


(In Per cent) 


.7 


9.3 


.7 


45 


1.7 


47 


0.0 


3 


0.0 


53 


0.0 


33 


eg 


7 


1 


0.0 


1.7 


0.0 


.4 


3.5 


.4 


7.2 


.5 


7.7 


Per cent 


Growth Rate 


Mortality 


(In Per cent) 


4*4 


0.0 


12.5 


8.5 


7 


56 


2.5 


82 


.8 


57 


1 


77 


.8 


57 


.6 


32.7 


.7 


1.3 


.7 


9 


2.2 


17.5 


4.4 


13 


3.5 


41 


4.4 


0.0 



We are fortunate at the North Bay Hatchery in that diseases 
so far have not been a major problem. If care is taken to keep all 
equipment that comes in contact with the fish in as sterile a con- 
dition as possible very little trouble is experienced. Overcrowding 
has to be avoided as much as possible also and all available space 
is made use of to prevent overcrowding of the fish. A list of pre- 
cautions to be taken when grinding food was prepared by the writer 
and has been pinned in a prominent place in the meat house for a 
number of years. 



- 50 - 

A number of precautions are taken to prevent disease. These 
precautions start with the arrival of the eyed eggs. As soon as 
possible after receiving the eggs they are dipped in a 1 to 2,000 
solution of Acriflavine for twenty-five minutes . Acriflavine is 
a fungicide and is used in the treatment of fish eggs to retard or 
deter the development of Saprolignia. 

To prevent spreading possible causes of disease from one 
holding unit to another separate brushes and feathers, used for 
cleaning, are provided for each outside raceway and pond. In the 
hatchery separate cleaning equipment is provided for the lake 
trout and the speckled trout. A solution of "Roccal" is kept in 
the hatchery at all times and brushes and feathers are sterilized 
each day. 

A log has been kept at the hatchery by the writer over 
the past few years. This log shows when we may expect diseases to 
show up from year to year and a precautionary treatment is given 
the fish just prior to these critical times. 

A further precaution taken at the North Bay Hatchery is 
to paint and sterilize the hatchery troughs and outside raceways 
after fish are taken out and before other fish are introduced to 
them. The outside ponds are also dried and sterilized annually. 

Never has the old saying "An ounce of prevention is worth 
a pound of cure" been truer than in the control of fish diseases at 
the hatchery. 

In spite of all our precautions, disease does strike occ- 
asionally. Most diseases can be diagnosed by the abnormal behaviour 
of the fish and they usually respond to treatment by the modern drugs 
recommended for the various diseases. 

However, sometimes things are not quite so simple as would 
appear from the above. For the past few years we have had "above 
normal" losses in our lake trout fry and yearlings in the late 
winter and early spring. So far, in spite of examinations by 
experts, we have not determined the cause of the losses. The fish 
have not responded to any treatments and the losses and possible 
disease have become a source of worry each year, I would strongly 
recommend that if the losses occur again this winter samples of the 
fish should be taken to Maple and O.A.C. for examination or that 
Doctor McDermott of O.A.C. be invited to visit the hatchery during 
the outbreak. 

A few known diseases which occur at the North Bay Hatchery 
and their control follows: 

Gill Disease (Bacterial) P.M. A. 1 to 250,000 solution 

for half an hour* 



- 51 - 



Fin Rot 

Octomitiasis 
Gyrodactylus 



Furunculosis (one 
suspected case only) 

STOCKING PLANS 



Formalin 1 to 4,000 solution for 
1 hour 

0.2% Carbarsone in diet 

P.M. A. 1 to 250,000 solution for 
half an hour or Formalin 1 to 
4,000 solution for 1 hour 

8 to 10 grams sulfamerazine each 
100 pounds fish per day 



Stocking plans should, I believe, be progressive and flex- 
ible enough to be able to be changed as conditions change. Past 
records will show that the North Bay Hatchery has worked along 
these lines. 

At the present time we are planting about 40,000 yearling 
speckled trout in the North Bay District and 60,000 yearling 
speckled trout in the Parry Sound District annually. In addition 
to this we plant as many lake trout as we are able to retain. The 
number of lake trout averages about 30>000 annually. We are also 
planting about 25,000 two-year-old speckled trout on a "put and 
take" basis in easy to get at, heavily fished lakes. This planting 
of two-year-old fish, averaging about three to the pound, has 
become very popular with the public. 

Until about 1954 we were planting about 250,000 yearling 
speckled trout each year with very little thought, except the eas- 
ing of public pressure, being given to the results. For want of a 
better plan the writer revised the stocking program in 1954 by put- 
ting a number of fairly inaccessible lakes on an alternate yearly 
stocking basis. This list was again revised in 195S» These rev- 
isions have resulted in the reduction in numbers shown above. The 
list remains flexible and as the Conservation Officers learn more 
about the lakes in their patrol areas by lake surveys and general 
observations other lakes may be deleted and perhaps new ones added. 

It should be noted that no reference has been made to 
stream plantings. Streams planted with hatchery fish have shown 
very little, if any, improvement in catches. This should be 
particularly true in a district such as North Bay. Except in a 
very few instances the streams cannot be reached by concession roads 
and most of the fishing is done at or near the highways. This leaves 
miles of streams which remain almost virgin fishing areas. These 
unfished areas, along with some of the fished areas, contain good 
spawning grounds and barring other changes, the streams should be 
. able to maintain a good population of trout without the help of the 
hatchery. Because of this very few streams are planted in the North 
Bay District and further reductions may be expected. 



- 52 - 

It has been suggested and recommended that the planting 
of yearling speckled trout be discontinued in the North Bay District. 
Now that there is no longer a size limit on speckled trout yearlings 
of four inches or so may be taken legally* I believe that the re- 
sults obtained by planting fingerlings as opposed to yearlings would 
compare favourably . This plan, if adopted, would reduce the hatchery 
costs considerably. There would be a reduction in feed and also in 
transportation cost during distribution.. It is not suggested that 
the planting of two-year-old fish be discontinued, but rather that 
the planting of fingerlings be substituted for yearlings* 

If it were possible to do more follow up work on the 
plantings other changes in the stocking plans would, no doubt, be 
made. Perhaps the appointment of a Fishery Management Officer to the 
North Bay District would help to steer the hatchery product to the 
places where it would best be utilized,, 

Specifically, the stocking plans are finalized by the 
District Biologist. At the present time, he assesses any changes 
suggested by the Conservation Officers in their patrol areas. If 
accepted these changes are made in the stocking program referred to 
previously. This results in a tentative stocking list for the year. 
At this point the Biologist and Hatchery Manager get together and 
the numbers to be planted in the various waters are added and the 
list finalized. It is then the Hatchery Manager's responsibility to 
prepare the maps for aircraft plantings. The trips must be planned 
to save as much flying time as possible and also save as much delay 
as possible in transferring fish from hatchery to aircraft. In the 
case of truck plantings the Conservation Officer, in whose patrol 
the fish are to be planted, is notified a day or so in advance of 
planting and is in attendance during the plantings. 

DISTRIBUTION 

Distribution from the North Bay Hatchery starts as soon as 
the ice starts to go out in the spring. This is usually in late 
April, The first fish to be planted are the two-year-old speckled 
trout. We like to get these fish planted before the opening of the 
trout season on May 1st. Because of ice and weather conditions this 
is not always possible. Some of the lakes planted with two-year-olds 
are lakes which do not maintain a population of trout naturally. 
They are borderline lakes and in many cases depletion of oxygen 
occurs during the winter ice cover. Due to this we are compelled 
to wait until these lakes are ice free and oxygen can once more 
build up by wave action. 

The planting of the two-year-old speckled trout is carried 
out by using a one-ton truck borrowed from Trout Lake Headquarters. 
Six standard distribution tanks measuring 3 feet by 3 feet by 2 feet 
deep are used to carry the fish. These tanks are equipped with a 
supply of oxygen with one diffusion stone being used to each tank. 
We consider 1,000 two-year-old trout to be a maximum load. This 
usually averages out to about 60 pounds of fish per tank. 



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After the two-year-old fish are planted the pond in which 
they were held is cleaned and sterilized . 25,000 large yearlings 
are then taken from our yearling stock and put into the empty pond 
to be held for the following year 9 s plantings of two-year-olds. 

Preparing the pond and grading the fish takes until about 
the middle of May. This is the time when our district aircraft 
arrives from Sault Ste. Marie. The aircraft is used extensively in 
our planting program. All the lake trout plantings are carried out 
by aircraft and most of the yearling speckled trout are planted by 
dropping them from aircraft in what is known as the free fall method, 
79,250 yearling speckled trout were planted by aircraft in the North 
Bay and Parry Sound Districts in I96I0 The truck was used in the 
planting of 15,100 yearling speckled trout « These were also planted 
in the North Bay and Parry Sound Districts. Only two lakes, for a 
total of 950 fish, were included in the truck plantings of yearling 
fish and the remainder in streams . 

As stated earlier the free fall method is used in all 
aircraft plantings of speckled trout . The equipment used is the 
equipment designed by Mr. K. H. Loftus in 1952. Slight modifications 
suggested by the writer at a meeting held at Sault Ste. Marie and 
attended by Messrs. Russ Whitfield and Ken Loftus, Division of Air 
Service Personnel and the writer, were adopted in the standardized 
equipment now used throughout Ontario. This equipment and the tech- 
niques used in the actual plantings are described fully in an article 
by Mr. K. H. Loftus, which appeared in Volume IS, Number 4, of the 
Progressive Fish-Culturist published in October, 1956. The advant- 
age of aircraft plantings over truck plantings also appear in Mr. 
Loftus* article. 

In the stream plantings, in which the truck is used for 
transportation, a special fish carrying tank was designed by the 
writer for use in the panel truck which is allotted to the hatchery. 
The tank is 3 feet 10 5 inches long, 2 feet 3 inches wide and 1 foot 
6 inches deep. It is made from heavy gauge galvanized iron. A 
baffle plate extends from front to back in the centre of the tank. 
The tank is equipped with six oxygen diffusion stones which are 
situated under a raised perforated metal floor. Oxygen is supplied 
from either "Q" or "K" type oxygen bottles and the flow is controlled 
by a therapy unit. A tap is attached to the lower rear of the tank. 
To this tap a short length of garden hose is attached. The hose is 
passed through a hole drilled in the floor of the truck. This 
permits the tank to be drained without wetting the inside of the 
truck. 

The truck tank was designed primarily to transport fish 
from the hatchery to the aircraft in the trays used for aircraft 
plantings. It worked so efficiently for this job that it was 
decided to try it on truck distribution in 1953 and it has been used 
for both purposes since that time. We have carried more fish per 
load than when we formerly used a ton truck with six tanks. 



- 54 - 

During the past few years because of revised feeding methods 
we have been forced to reduce the number of fish per load in both 
truck and aircraft. When we first started free fall planting we 
were able to carry 500 fish per tray for a total of 9,000 fish per 
load. This number is now cut in half. It also means twice as many 
trips a year for the aircraft,. This, I believe, is another argument 
in favour of fingerling plantings. 

In addition to the fish raised at this station other 
species of fish, not raised at North Bay, are transferred to the 
hatchery and distributed from here. This is particularly true in 
the case of Kamloops trout. 

DISTRIBUTION COSTS 

Distribution costs for plantings of 24,000 two-year-old 
speckled trout (I960) : 

Transportation (Truck) 3301 miles @ .110 per mile $363.11 

Travel 39.55 

Oxygen Supplies 64.87 

Total Cost $ 467.53 

Average Cost per Fish for Plantings 1.90 

Distribution costs for plantings of 120,000 yearling 
speckled trout and 12,000 yearling lake trout (I960): 

Transportation 

36.5 hours flying time @ $40.00 per hour $1460.00 
2612 truck miles @ .070 per mile 182.84 

Travel 25.50 

Oxygen Supplies 40.3 5 

Total Cost $1708.69 

Average Cost per Fish for Plantings 1.30 

TRANSFERS 

Each fall a transfer of fingerling fish is made from this 
hatchery to one of the Pond Stations. These transfers have been 
made to White Lake Hatchery, Skeleton Lake Hatchery, Sandfield 
Hatchery and Mid hurst Ponds. This fall, 1961, 100,000 speckled 
trout fingerlings and 25,000 lake trout fingerlings were trans- 
ferred from North Bay Hatchery to White Lake Hatchery. 



- 55 - 

The transfers are usually made by truck using the same 
equipment as described for the distribution of two-year-old speckled 
trout. By using oxygen we are able to carry 33>333 trout weighing 
SO to $5 fish per pound in each truck. This is about 420 pounds of 
fish per load or 70 pounds of fish per tanko Not many years ago 
9,000 fingerlings were considered to be the maximum number which 
could be safely carried in each load. The use of oxygen has greatly 
reduced the time and cost of transfers. 

Transfers are usually made as a co-operative effort bet- 
ween the districts involved. A truck is provided by each hatchery 
and the cost of the truck, driver, oxygen, etc., is borne by the 
hatchery to which the truck is assigned. This cost sharing seems 
to be a fair way of handling transfer costs. 

SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 

In addition to the fish carrying tank described under the 
heading "Distribution" a small carrying tank was designed by the 
writer and put into operation in 195$ • This tank is 19i inches 
long, 13 inches wide and 24 inches deep. A water-tight partition 
has been constructed in the tank to give a fish carrying area of 
15 inches by 13 inches. Five fish planting trays can be carried in 
the tank. The remaining inside portion has been partitioned off to 
hold two small "D" size oxygen bottles. A test was made on this 
tank shortly after its construction. During the test it was found 
that one "D" size oxygen bottle would supply oxygen to the fish for 
19 hours and 25 minutes. 

The above tank was designed with train shipments in mind. 
However, since its manufacture we have had very few train shipments. 
It can and has been used successfully in any place where cans were 
formerly used. It can quite safely handle as many fish as were 
formerly handled in ten cans. The tank has proved its value on 
boat trips and short carries and was used this year (1961) on two 
sale orders. On one sale order a private aircraft was used and 
1,000 speckled trout yearlings were transported to a lake in Quebec 
in the tank. On the second sale order 500 fish were carried in the 
tank. In this latter case the tank was carried in the trunk of 
a car. 

Another simple but effective piece of equipment used 
during distribution is a covered tub. It was found that when carry- 
ing two-year-old speckled trout from the truck to the water to be 
planted a few of the fish would jump out of the tub on each trip. 
A simple method of preventing this was devised by Mr. G. Richardson 
of Camp Richfield. Mr. Richardson made a hinged cover for the 
tub. One-half of the cover is soldered directly to the top of the 
tub. The other half is left free to be opened or closed as needed. 
In addition to its use on distribution this covered tub is used when 
moving fish from one holding unit to another at the hatchery. 



- 56 - 

One other piece of equipment which might come under this 
heading is still in the planning stage . In spite of our improved 
methods of distribution we still have a small amount of transporting 
of fish by pack cans. We have on hand an aluminum pack can which is 
mounted on a pack board . It is my intention to equip this pack can 
with oxygen using the small light "D" type bottle. I believe that 
the number of fish normally carried in five pack cans could be carr- 
ied in this proposed oxygen equipped can. It will have the added 
advantage of enabling the man carrying the pack can to rest without 
endangering the lives of the fish by oxygen depletion . 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMENTS 

In addition to the speckled trout and lake trout, with which 
this paper deals, several other species of fish have been hatched 
at the North Bay Hatchery with varying results We have success- 
fully raised Splake, Hills Lake male and Nipigon female crosses and 
Hills Lake female and Nipigon male crosses. The results have not 
been as encouraging in our attempts to raise fish from eggs taken 
from wild fish from Lake Nipigon, Ouananiche and Kamloops. It may 
be possible to successfully raise Kamloops at this hatchery if the 
water temperature was raised slightly during the winter months. A 
heating device fur this purpose is described in an article by Fred- 
rick S. Erdman which appeared in the February, 1961, issue of the 
Ashrae Journal. The article is entitled "How a Heat Pump Improved 
Water Conditions at a Fish Hatchery". 

The North Bay Hatchery is long overdue for major repairs. 
When these renovations get to the planning stage, I believe that 
serious thought should be given to replacing the two ponds with 
smaller holding units (preferably circular tanks). The large ponds 
have several definite disadvantages. One of the most important of 
these disadvantages is the lack of control in the large ponds. If 
disease strikes the fish held in the ponds the cost of treatment in 
most cases would be prohibitive. Also, much better results could be 
obtained at the hatchery if it were possible to grade the fish to 
size. In the large ponds there is a great deal of variation in 
size. This results in the larger fish becoming more aggressive, 
getting more than their share of food and growing much faster than 
their stunted brothers. This in turn results in cannibalism and 
makes it difficult to keep an accurate count of the fish on hand. 

I would suggest that a portable radio be tried in the 
hatchery truck during distribution in 1962. This could eliminate 
delays which sometimes occur when the position of the aircraft is 
not known, i.e. during stops for fuel, etc, It could also be used 
to contact the nearest base in case of mechanical failure during 
truck distribution. 

In 1959 pamphlets were printed for distribution to the 
public from the North Bay Hatchery. In a letter to the District Off- 
ice dated October 12th, 1955, the writer suggested that pamphlets 
be made available for distribution. It was my suggestion that these 
pamphlets be of a general nature which could be distributed from 
any and all hatcheries. The pamphlets now on hand are more specific 
and deal entirely with operations at the North Bay Hatchery. This 
may or may not be the better idea. In any event the pamphlsts have 



- 57 - 

been very popular with the visitors to the hatchery and in my opinion 
should be continued- 

One of the Assistants at the North Bay Hatchery has been 
trained in the art of aging fish by scale reading,, A machine for 
this purpose has been installed at the rear of the hatchery office 
and much of this man ? s time during the winter months is spent in 
aging fish taken during lake surveys, netting operations, angling, 
etc. 

Another phase of hatchery procedure which may be worthy of 
mention is the method of cleaning ponds at the North Bay Hatchery e 
The original procedure was to rake the gravel from the sides down 
to the four foot strip of cement which runs through the centre of 
each pondo We then turned the water on and raked and swept the 
gravel back with the foreign matter being cleaned out in the process. 
This was a time consuming and back breaking job. There was also a 
considerable amount of gravel lost each year due to it being car- 
ried past the ponds by the flow of water. In looking for a more 
efficient and easier method of doing this job Conservation Officer 
R. M, Churcott, who at the time was Hatchery Assistant, came up 
with the idea of washing the sides of the ponds down with water 
under pressure. A Wajax pump is used for the water supply. By 
using a "Siamese" two lengths of hose can be used and both sides of 
the pond can be flushed simultaneously. The result is a fasterand 
easier method without former loss of gravel. Because of the pressure 
of the water a more thorough washing is accomplished. 

In 195$, the writer started using the monthly "Fish 
Production Sheets". The use of these reports was included in the 
Fish Culture Course given to a number of Hatchery Managers in 
August, 195$, at the For st Ranger School at Dorset. These sheets 
have proven to be of great value at this station and their value 
will increase as more data are compiled from them. It is because 
of these sheets that much of the information contained in this paper 
is now known. In the opinion of the writer no hatchery can be run 
on a business-like basis without the use of the Fish Production 
Sheets or other records containing similar information.